TheNanoAge Home.com

THE ATOM:

    ATOMIC PHYSICS 101
  1. WHAT ARE ATOMS MADE OF?

 

ATOMIC PHYSICS 101

        An atom is the smallest divisible unit of elemental matter. Atoms are the building blocks of all matter in the Universe. There are 80 stable chemical elements, or kinds of atoms, in the periodic table out of a total of 117 that have been discovered so far. Only a few dozen of these various types of atoms will commonly be used as the raw feedstock material for all products manufactured using nanotechnology. Almost infinite variation is possible in the various combinations of two or more elements, forming molecules. Atoms are so small that 1 gram of hydrogen gas contains almost 600 sextillion (600 million million billion) individual atoms (or nearly 300 sextillion molecules of H2)!

WHAT ARE ATOMS MADE OF?

 Subatomic       Subatomic physics: All atoms are made up of three main subatomic particles; protons (positively charged), neutrons (neutral/no charge) and electrons (negatively charged.) Protons and neutrons comprise the nucleus at the heart of an atom, while electrons 'orbit' at fixed distances, circumscribing the bulk of an atom's volume. Almost all of the volume of an atom is completely empty space. The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom (its atomic number) is what distinguishes one type of atomic element from another.

        Protons, neutrons and electrons can be further broken down into even smaller subatomic particles known as quarks. There are six types of quarks, known as flavors: up, down, charm, strange, top, and bottom. In Nature, quarks are always found bound together into composite particles called hadrons (because of a phenomenon called color confinement.)

NANO Links
Bookmark and Share
HOME
Site MAP
About TNA
NANO Links

MEDICINE
COMPUTERS
MATERIALS
VIRTUAL REALITY
MILITARY
ENERGY
ECONOMICS
DANGERS
THE FUTURE

E-mail Steve
steve@THEnanoAGE.com