PAST, PRESENT & FUTURE NANO MILESTONES
30BC-640AD - The Lycurgus Cup (an apparently accidental early use of nanotech) contains gold and silver nanoparticles which cause it to change color from green to red when illuminated from the outside or inside, respectively.
1450-1600 - Renaissance Artisans (Deruta Ceramicists) used copper and silver nanoparticles between 5 and 100 nm to produce metallic and iridescent glazes on ceramics.
1827 - Photography depends upon light sensitive nanoparticles to form photographic images.
1856 - Researcher, Michael Faraday discovers/prepares the first metallic colloids. His gold colloids (fine particles suspended in solution) had unique optical/electronic properties.
1959 - Richard Feynman delivers famous speech, "There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom"
1960 - William McLellan constructs the first 250 microgram, 2000 rpm motor out of 13 individual parts, as large as the period at the end of this sentence.
1974 - Professor Norio Taniguchi becomes the first to formulate and use the term Nano-technology.
1981 - The Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) is invented by Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer of IBM's Zurich Lab in Switzerland. The STM allows scientists to visualize electron density, and hence infer the position of individual atoms and molecules.
1985 - Fullerenes (commonly called buckyballs) are discovered by researchers at Rice University.
1986 - Gerd Binnig, Christopher Gerber and Calvin F. Quate invent the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM.)
1986 - Eric Drexler, an American Engineer and the founder of Foresight Nanotech Institute, writes Engines of Creation, introducing nanotechnology to the world.
1989 - The first commercially available Atomic Force Microscope is introduced.
1989 - Scientists spell out the letters "IBM" in atoms.
1991 - Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are discovered by Sumio Iijima, working at NEC. Nanotubes are essentially rolled sheets of graphene which can be single or multi-walled. Nanotubes have potential applications in electronics, composite materials, the space elevator, and drug delivery.
1994 - US science advisor, Dr. Jack Gibbons talks at the White House about nanotechnology and calls for increased R&D.
1997 - Zyvex, the first company to research nanotechnology, is founded.
1999 - Consumer nanotech-based products start appearing on the global marketplace.
2003 - Congress enacts the 21st Century Nanotechnology Research and Development Act.
2009 - the EPA outlines a new research and regulatory strategy to better control the production and use of engineered nanomaterials.
2010 The House of Lords Science and Technology Committee, United Kingdom, warns its country's food industry against hiding its use of nanotechnology.
~2020 - The first Molecular Assembler is developed.
~2040s - The first "Mind Upload" (if possible at all.)